Eastern Christian Churches Between State and Society: An Overview of the Religious Landscape in Ukraine (1989–2014)

Natalia Shlikhta

Abstract


The decline of the communist regime in the late 1980s stimulated decentralizing processes within the Russian Orthodox Church; a final result being the emergence of Eastern Christian Churches in independent Ukraine: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Throughout the next two and a half decades the Ukrainian religious landscape has been simultaneously characterized by sharp conflicts and a search for ways of peaceful coexistence between various confessions; ecumenical initiatives, and asserting one’s “canonicity” against the “schismatic” others; attempts by some Churches to act as civil agencies and national institutions; attempts by the state under President Yanukovych to revive a “state” Church following the Russian model; moves towards a Local Ukrainian Orthodox Church and also towards “Russkii mir” (The Russian World). Crucial issues are – the Churches’ search for their place in the post-Soviet Ukrainian realm and their choices of models for coexistence with Ukrainian officialdom and society. In its approach the article provides a general profile of each Church, examines state policies towards religion and the Church in independent Ukraine, and describes a turning point, that being the Revolution of Dignity’s deepinfluence on the Churches’ perceptions of themselves and their place in Ukrainian life.

Keywords


Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate; the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate; the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church; the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church; Ukrainian society; state-church relations

Full Text:

PDF

References


Casanova, José. Religion in the Modern World. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Chervak, Bohdan. “UHKTs: vid mytropolii do patriarkhatu (07.12.11) [The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church: From Metropolis to Patriarchate (December 7, 2011)].” Accessed May 23, 2015. http://www.pravda.com.ua/columns/2011/12/7/6814454/.

Chornomorets, Yurii. “Mytropolyt Volodymyr: trahediia i triumph ukraintsia [Metropolitan Volodymyr: The Triumph and Tragedy of a Ukrainian].” Risu.org.ua. Accessed March 1, 2016. http://risu.org.ua/ua/index/expert_thought/open_theme/39150/.

Chornomorets, Yurii. “Vazhkyi vybir Patriarkha [The Patriarch’s Difficult Choice].” Den, July 25, 2014. (Available at: http://www.day.kiev.ua/uk/blog/suspilstvo/vazhkiy-vibir-patriarha.)

Chornomorets, Yurii. “Mytropolyt Onufrii: choho chekaty [Metropolitan Onufrii: What Lies in Await].” Den, August 15, 2014. (Available at: http://www.day.kiev.ua/uk/article/cuspilstvo/mitropolit-onufriy-chogo-chekati.)

Chornomorets, Yurii. “Za lashtunkamy Soboru [Backstage of the Council].” Den, August 19, 2014. (Available at: http://www.day.kiev.ua/uk/blog/suspilstvo/za-lashtunkami-soboru.)

Filipovych, L. O., and O. V. Horkusha. Maidan i Tserkva. Khronika podii ta ekspertna otsinka [Maidan and the Church: A Chronicle of Events and Expert Assessment]. Kyiv: Sammitknyha, 2014.

Hewko, Margarita, and Sara Sievers. “The Oral History of Independent Ukraine 1988–1991.” Oralhistory.org. Accessed May 1, 2015. http://oralhistory.org.ua/interview-ua/466/.

Hovorun, Cyril. “The Church in the Bloodlands.” First Things, October, 2014. Accessed October 6, 2015. http://www.firstthings.com/article/2014/10/the-church-in-the-bloodlands.

Huzar, Liubomyr. “Pro utverdzhennia patriarshoho ustroiu UHKTs. Pastyrske poslannia (Lviv, 06.09.04) [On the Patriarhal Office of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Pastoral

Message (Lviv, September 6, 2004)].” Informational Resource of Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church, 2004. Accessed April 7, 2015. http://www.ugcc.org.ua/218.0.html.

Ihor (Isichenko), Archbishop. Istoria Khrystovoi Tserkvy v Ukraini [A History of Christ’s Church in Ukraine]. 4th ed. Kharkiv: Akta, 2008.

Kapsamun, Ivan. “Pastva hotova do zmin. A Tserkva? [The Flock is Ready for Change. Is the Church?].” Den, August 14, 2014. (Available at: http://www.day.kiev.ua/uk/article/denukrayini/pastva-gotova-do-zmin-cerkva.)

Lavrysh, Yuliana. “UPTs pered vyborom [The Ukrainian Orthodox Church Making its Choice].” Den, August 6, 2014. (Available at: http://www.day.kiev.ua/uk/article/tema-dnyacuspilstvo/upc-pered-viborom.)

Leustean, Lucian N. Eastern Christianity in the Twenty-First Century. London: Routledge, 2014.

“Lyst Patriarkha Kyivskoho Filareta do Vselenskoho Patriarkha Varfolomiia [Letter of Patriarch Filaret of Kyiv to Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew].” Holos pravoslavia, September,

, 4.

Relihiia i vlada v Ukraini: problemy vzaiemovidnosyn. Informatsiino-analitychni materialy do Kruhloho stolu na temu: “Derzhavno-konfesiini vidnosyny v Ukraini, yikh osoblyvosti

i tendentsii rozvytku” 8 liutoho 2011 r. [Religion and the State in Ukraine: Issues in their Relations. Analytical Materials for the Roundtable “State-Confessional Relations in Ukraine,

their Peculiarities and Perspectives for Development”]. February 8, 2011. Kyiv, 2011. (Available at: http://www.uceps.org/upload/prz_2011_Rlg_smll.pdf.)

“Relihiinist ukraintsiv: riven, kharakter, stavlennia do okremykh aspektiv tserkovno-relihiinoi sytuatsii i derzhavno-konfesiinykh vidnosyn [The Religiosity of Ukrainians: Its Level, Character, and Attitudes Towards Certain Issues in the Religious Situation and State-Church Relations].” Natsionalna bezpeka i oborona 1 (2013): 15–40. (Available at: http://www.razumkov.org.ua/ukr/files/category_journal/Zhrnl_Religy_2013_smll.pdf.)

Reshetnikov, Yurii. “Analiz zakonodavchykh initsiatyv u sferi svobody sovisti ta derzhavnokonfesiinykh vidnosynVerkhvnoi Rady Ukrainy VI sklykannia [An Analysis of Legislative

Initiatives in the Sphere of the Freedom of Conscience and State-Confessional Relations of the VI Convocation of the Verkovna Rada of Ukraine],” in Relihiia i vlada v Ukraini:

problemy vzaiemovidnosyn. Informatsiino-analitychni materialy do Kruhloho stolu na temu: “Derzhavno-konfesiini vidnosyny v Ukraini stanom na 2013 rik: rukh do partnerstva derzhavy i Tserkvy chy do kryzy vzaiemyn?” 22 kvitnia 2013 r., April 22, 2013, 16–22. Kyiv, 2013. Available at: http://www.razumkov.org.ua/upload/Przh_Religion_2013.pdf.

“The Report by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe of October 5, 2005 ‘Honoring of Obligations and Commitments of Ukraine.’” Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.

Accessed May 1, 2016. http://old.minjust.gov.ua/6782.

Shchotkina, Kateryna. “Moskva, Vatykan i neperedbachuvana pohoda v Ukraini [Moscow, the Vatican, and the Unpredictable Situation in Ukraine].” Dzerkalo tyzhnia, March 5, 2004.

(Available at: http://gazeta.dt.ua/SOCIET/moskva,_vatikan_i_neperedbachuvana_

pogoda_v_ukrayini.html.)

Shchotkina, Kateryna. “Chego ne budet posle Mitropolita Vladimira [What won’t Be after Metropolitan Volodymyr].” Risu.org.ua. November 11, 2010. Accessed May 14, 2016. http://risu.org.ua/ua/index/expert_thought/authors_columns/kshchotkina_column/39142/.

Shchotkina, Kateryna. “Sobor nashvydkoruch [A Council Prepared in Haste].” Dzerkalo tyzhnia, July 15, 2011. (Available at: http://gazeta.dt.ua/POLITICS/sobor_nashvidkuruch.html.)

Shchotkina, Kateryna. ““UAPTs: poza meinstrimom [The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church: Outside of the Mainstream].” Risu.org.ua. Last modified August 2, 2011. Accessed May 1, 2015. http://risu.org.ua/ua/index/expert_thought/authors_columns/kshchotkina_

column/43596/.

Shchotkina, Kateryna. “Relihiine zhyttia — 2015: dreif parafii ta polityzatsiia Tserkvy [Religious Life in 2015: The Drift of Parishes and the Politization of the Church].” Delovaia stolitsa,

December 30, 2014. Accessed June 25, 2015. http://www.dsnews.ua/society/religiynezhittya‑2015-dreyf-parafiy-ta-politizatsiya-tserkvi‑30122014161600.

Shlikhta, Natalia. Tserkva tykh, khto vyzhyv. Radianska Ukraina, seredyna 1940-kh — pochatok 1970-kh rr. [The Church of Those who Survived. Soviet Ukraine in the Mid‑1940s — Early 1970s]. Kharkiv: Akta, 2011.

Ukraina — 2014: suspilno-politychnyi konflikt i Tserkva [Ukraine‑2014: The Social and Political Conflict and Church]. Tsentr Razumkova. Kyiv, 2014. (Available at: http://www.razumkov.org.ua/upload/1400155420_file.pdf.)

Volodymyr (Sabodan), Metropolitan. “V otnoshenii avtokefalii dolzhna vestis mudraia i vzveshennaia politika [Contemplating Autocephaly Requires Wise and Measured Policies].” Non-official Site of the Mgarsky Monastery. Accessed May 14, 2016. http://www.mgarsky-monastery.org/main/79.

Yelensky, Viktor. “Relihiia ‘nuliovykh’: pidsumky desiatylittia [Religion of the ‘2000s’: A Decade’s Summation].” Risu.org.ua. Accessed March 1, 2015. http://risu.org.ua/article_print.

php?id=40964&name=analytic&_lang=ua&.

Yelensky, Viktor. “Pered kozhnymy vyboramy vlada pochynaie hru z Tserkvoiu [Prior to Every Elections the State begins its Gamesmanship with the Church].” Risu.org.ua, interview

conducted on February 14, 2012. Accessed November 13, 2015. http://risu.org.ua/ua/index/expert_thought/interview/46825/.

Yelensky, Viktor. “Ukrainskoe pravoslavie i ukrainskii proekt [Ukrainian Orthodoxy and the Ukrainian Project].” Pro et Contra 17.3–4 (2013): 27–44. (Available at: http://carnegie.ru/ proetcontra/?fa=53022.)




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18523/kmhj73945.2016-3.123-142

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal
ISSN 2313-4895
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy
2 Skovoroda St., Kyiv 04655, Ukraine